In the course of a person’s life, troubles or moments of difficulty can occur that lead to the inability to fulfill their obligations or, in other words, to fail to pay their installments on time ( late payments ) or at all ( insolvency). ). When this happens, it is inserted in what are called lists of bad payers , compiled by the Central Risk , that is to say those companies that refer to the credit institutions to obtain information on the credit situation (and on the repayment capacity) of a potential new client.
For these subjects, which is more complex (if not impossible) to access traditional sources of credit, specific forms of financing called loans for bad payers have been designed.
Bad payers: who they are and how they become
As mentioned, a bad payer is the one who, for the most various reasons, could not cope (completely or in good time) with his own obligation, thus becoming insolvent . The names of these subjects are recorded in special lists managed by the Central Risk and reported to banks that, as a rule, consider them risky from a credit point of view (due to the high possibility of insolvency) and carefully evaluate the possible granting of loans. The most common cases of insolvency (and therefore the registration of bad payers for a maximum period of 5 years) are:
- the missed or delayed payment of the installments of a loan or another loan;
- the seizure of assets owned by the subject;
- protest of checks issued by the subject due to lack of funds.
Loans for bad payers
Loans granted to these parties with a high risk of default are usually provided by specialized companies in the sector and are characterized by the need for additional guarantees and much more important than traditional loans.
In this sense, the most common type of loan is that which provides as a guarantee the assignment of the fifth salary : the lender, in this way, protects against the possible insolvency of the debtor by going to guarantee part of the paycheck to return. monthly received by the debtor. If this is not possible, then other forms of loan must be used.
Loans without assignment of the fifth
In the event that the debtor does not have a fixed income that allows him, although qualified as a bad payer, to access the loan request against assignment of the fifth salary , it is necessary to identify an alternative form of guarantee to be presented to the credit institution. At this point, to tell the truth, the remaining solutions are limited and focus on the possibility of offering a real guarantee or a personal guarantee to the bank . In the first case, a mortgage is raised (or a lien, depending on the type of asset) on a property of the bad payer: if the latter turns out to be insolvent , the bank has the right to assault the mortgaged assets (or pledged) to return from your exposure.
In the situation in which real guarantees were not possible, only the issue of a guarantee (or other personal guarantee ) by a third party (solvent and considered safe) in favor of the debtor remains: in this way, in case of insolvency the bank could retaliate on the guarantor of the debtor . Whatever the guarantee presented, the most common technical form that the loan assumes, in these cases, is that of the loan changed: the loan is assisted by the issue of bills of exchange with subsequent expirations, paying the debtor to pay the installments of the loan. financing.